Teen Chhatris | Hazire, Makanpur Village, Indrapuram


Last year I finally got a chance to explore the ancient pavilions in Makanpur village inside the posh Indirapuram locality. A slight diversion from my exploration of Delhi monuments. This was as part of discovering lesser known heritage buildings in and around Delhi. I had a few locations marked but could visit only this one before falling sick and then the pandemic ruined my plans.

It took me a lot of effort to locate the place as many of the access points were dug out. The street shop owners, vendors and local residents had little clue about it and were amused as to why a gray haired jeans clad woman with camera is looking for some dilapidated old ruins and that too in blistering summer noon. I kept showing photographs from a national daily to them and finally an old auto driver guiding me to an approximate location. I landed up near the Masjid and again started the search. Finally a shop keeper pointed me to the caretaker of the graveyard, the only one who could guide me. I couldn’t find the old gentleman but someone children got curious and tagged along as I made my way through narrow lanes. One of them asked what I was looking for and seeing the photos exclaimed, ” ye to kabristan mein hain. wahan tala laga hai. andar jana mana hai. sab toota phoota hai. wahan kya kaam hai aapko?” ( these are in the graveyard and the gate is locked. no one is allowed inside. Everything is falling apart. What do want from there?)

I explained I needed to take photos to write about it. Thinking I was a journalist they demanded a picture and in exchanged of that agreed to take me there. We finally reached the place but the man who had the key couldn’t be found. By then I was tired and late for another appointment at my son’s home. I had finally found the gorgeous structures shrouded from all around by tall buildings.

Orphaned and decaying pavilion tombs or chhatris or hazire as called by the local Muslim community are looked after by them. The gate is mostly locked and displays a board claiming it to be a local graveyard. Perhaps this is the only reason why these structures have remained standing even now.

Earlier the structures were visible from NH24 but rampant construction and high rise buildings around it have obscured the view. The pavilions are in a dilapidated state; uncared and forgotten. A mute testimony of a time now gone.

One of the three Chhatris is almost completely gone as you can see. One of the other two is also breaking apart. The blue plaster-work or tile-work on a band around the Dome’s neck is only visible in a few places on the middle structure. Rest has vanished. I didn’t get enough time to study so will go again.

The inverted lotus finial is very prominent in one of the domes.

The chhatris or hazire come under the state archaeological department. ASI has washed its hands off these and they find no place in the list of monuments protected and maintained by them. GDA doesn’t give a care either.

The tombs have a striking resemblance to Yusuf Qattal’s tomb and style of masonry is similar to Jahaz Mahal. The delicate red sandstone pillars, lotus finial and blue tiles suggest it to be either Lodi period or Mughal. I’m no expert so just thinking aloud here. I may be wrong. The motifs are ornate and carved in the maroon tinge of Bharatpur sandstone. Lot of lattice screens were laying around here and there. You can view a few in the picture of the graves below.

The pavilions are often claimed to be from 16th century Mughal period. The local lore about this being the grave of sakka, the bhishti who saved Humayun’s life during the battle of Chausa, doesn’t seem probable to me. There are more than three graves inside the pavilions.

I’m still gathering information about these by discussing with various people who may know the right facts. Will update once something that pin points to the precise date and historical facts is found.

I wasn’t allowed in to inspect the pavilions closely as women aren’t allowed in kabristan ( graveyard) so the photos were taken from right near the gate. There were a very more that one of the young men had taken from my phone but I seem to have lost them. Will update if they’re found.

If you have any authentic documented information about these pavilions then please share.

Delhi Monuments – Safdarjung’s Tomb Complex


Safdar Jung’s Tomb complex or Mansur ka Maqbara, as locals call it, holds a special place in my heart. I think the tomb was never meant to rival Humayun’s Tomb as sighted everywhere but to solely honor Mirza Muqin Abul Mansur Khan, viceroy of Awadh and later the chief minister known by his title, Safdar Jung.  He was a powerful governor and the state of Awadh or oudh virtually became independent of the Mughal empire under Safdar Jung and his successors till it was annexed by the British in 1857. It rivaled Delhi in literature, architecture, art.  Satyajit Ray’s classic movie, Shatranj Ke Khiladi (The Chess Players) was set in the backdrop of Awadh.

This garden tomb was the last architectural project of Mughal era in Delhi.

There is an undisturbed calm that fills the tomb complex as it is not crowded with tourists like the other tombs. A sereneness that draws you in. It may be “imperfect” architecturally but as a whole the entire complex is awe inspiring.

Remember what Sheldon’s mother says in Big Bang Theory? “Sometimes it’s the imperfect stuff that makes things perfect.”

Keep in mind that this artistically magnificent tomb is that of a prime minister in the Mughal Empire, “Wazir-ul-Mamlikat-i-Hindustan” and not that of an emperor or a Mughal royal. Even his master Muhammad Shah Rangila doesn’t enjoy the luxury of such a splendid spacious resting place. Though he may have that fine ornate carvings, characteristic of  mid 18th century Mughal era, inside his tomb.

As for the marble being stolen from Rahim Khan e Khana’s tomb there are two theories on this. One is the popular one floating everywhere and mentioned by historians too that some of the exterior stone (marble) was plundered from Rahim’s tomb while constructing Safdarjung’s tomb.

The second theory I read refutes the first. As per Aga Khan Trust ( who are restoring Rahim’s Tomb) no material from there was used in Safdar Jung’s Tomb. The analyzed stone cladding is totally different. Mr. Ratish Nanda  says, the marble on this dome doesn’t match the one in Rahim’s.

I am no historian or expert to give my views on it but I still feel that wherever the stones came from should not belittle the efforts of creating this grand mausoleum.

Both Sir Syed ( who thinks the stones and marble went to Lucknow) and Basheeruddin Ahmed who thinks it was stolen during the time the railway line was being built by workers, don’t mention Safdarjung refute the stripping off the marble theory.

 

The triple storied heavily ornamented gateway of the tomb complex is a photographers’ delight. The splendid floral and geometrical patterns that adorns the facade symmetrically around the jharokha of the arched entrance are stunningly done in orange, green and purple. One of the prettiest gateways in Delhi especially in comparison to the much touted Humayun’s Tomb. Only a few of the buildings by later Mughals have this Bangla jharokha style incorporated with the inverted arches in their buildings as per my knowledge. Correct me if I’m wrong.

One can barely see one of the fading fish motifs, the royal insignia of Awadh, on the left side under the base of the arch. The other is not visible at all. It reminds one of  Safdar Jung’ glorious connection with Awadh. The arched walls of the gate frame the tomb perfectly and trust me it is a very surreal experience to stand there and watch the grand mausoleum. There is a lot of work in incised plaster in the interior of the gate.

The Arabic inscription over the main entry gate to the central chamber of the tomb reads, “When the hero of plain bravery departs from the transitory, may he become a resident of god’s paradise”.

A gate on the right side leads to the three domed mosque.  most of the chambers of the madarsa and the mosque is not accessible to the pubic which is the case in many of the monuments in Delhi. A very frustrating rule. I was not permitted to step in the courtyard or into the mosque to see the Ablution or the Waju Khana with a fountain that is a rare occurrence in such mosques.

The gardens are filled with bird calls and it is soothing to see such a treasure of unique trees and shrubs. I was able to see the gorgeous Sita Ashok, mango and the Indian Gooseberry (Awla) in bloom, the kadamb fruiting in full glory with squirrels and birds feasting on the ripe fruits, the beautiful shrubs of Red Kund / Red Jasmine lining the main pathway to the tomb.

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The manicured lawns, the swaying palms, the gardeners at work, the entire tranquility just lift  your tired spirits. You must look up the gardens whenever visiting any of the monuments.  The waterways are always dry but the well had a motor attached for watering the garden which was a welcome sight as earlier I remember seeing it all neglected and was cordoned off with the stone lattice work fence.

Don’t know how deep it is. Was it used to quench the thirst of weary travelers or those staying in the pavilions in the complex apart from being the prime water source to the gardens? Perhaps a Persian water wheel was used for garden irrigation or water was even hand drawn too for drinking. I’m trying yo picture the scene. Nothing online about the well perhaps because these wells are poor cousins of the mighty step-wells..lol …I’ve seen a beautiful working well in khair ul manazil mosque. There’s one in Nili masjid too but closed and not in use.

Built in 1753-54 AD, Safdar Jung’s tomb is set on a high plinth containing series of recessed arches. It is surrounded by a 300-sq-meter garden in typical Mughal style charbagh pattern where the garden is divided in four squares by walking paths and canals leading to the three pavilions that are, as expected of ASI, out of bound for public. The tomb is in the center. There are four two storied minarets in the four corners of the square structure.

The onion shaped dome, made of white marble and pink stone, rising above a 16 sided sandstone drum stands out uniquely amidst the other tombs and monuments of that period. Designed and built by Abyssinian architect Shaidi Bilal Mohammad Khan the tomb is a fine example of Persian and Indian architecture. The bulbous shape derives from Persian Timurid domes and the elegant lotus finial with a marble pinnacle derives from the Hindu temples.

(I lost a few pictures so sorry for this shoddy one. Will change when I visit the tomb next.)

The interior of the dome has beautiful work in molded limestone plaster or stucco as we know it. The medallions with looped floral designs are surrounded by radiating petals and carried on honeycomb pendents that rise in multilayered formations. The dome consists of eight chambers, the central one housing the pristine white marble cenotaph of Safdar Jung. One of the most ornate and beautiful ones in Delhi.

The actual graves or burial chambers of Safadrjung and his wife Amat Jahan Begum are placed in an underground chamber of the monument.

The central chamber has four entrances and the play of light and shadow in the chamber is stunning.

Hidden staircase in the plinth leads to the tomb level and the tomb interior can be accessed via flight of stairs on the two sides. Each of the side room is decorated with rococo plaster work. Each designs different from the other. The minaret in the four corners are lined with thin marble strips and have a chatri on top.  

The Mughal Empire by the mid 1700s and there may have been several factors and not just short funds leading to the hurried patchwork in the making of this tomb. I wish someone researches this a bit more.

There is a certain grace about this tomb made of red sandstone and marble. I hope the monument gets its due and people stop quoting it as resembling an “elderly courtesan”..  (highly exaggerated), “last flicker…” and “poor copy” of Humayun’s Tomb etc. The mausoleum is perfect in its so called imperfection. 

Look beyond what is served to you on platter and visit the tomb with no preconceived notions. Its quiescence will draw you in like nothing else.